A lathe is a tool that is commonly used in both woodworking and metal works. A lathe takes a cylindrical object and, through a turning action by the machine, transforms the object into a symmetrically identical work. The lathe allows the operator to sand, cut, drill and perform other actions that can turn wood and metal into pieces used in toys, furniture, automobiles and more.
A lathe operator should understand the basic operations for a lathe. This includes an understanding of the different parts commonly found on a lathe and the basic procedures associated with its operation. A lathe operator should also be aware of what to do and what not to do when operating a lathe. These do’s and don’ts apply to all types of lathes, regardless of the type of material being lathed.
Parts of the Lathe
Most every lathe in use for machining functions contain the same common parts. The lathe chuck is a housing used to hold firmly the material being used in the lathe operation. In addition to the chuck, there are various handles that are used to move the material horizontally and vertically. A cutting tool is also part of the lathe that is used for cutting into the material in order to create symmetrical patterns.
Basic Lathe Operation Procedures
When material is secured in the chuck the lathe is turned on, rotating the material for the performance of the cutting or sanding function. There are at least three basic processes a lathe operator needs to pay attention to in order to yield a perfectly lathed piece of material. These processes are the rotating speed of the lathe, the cutting depth and speed at which the material is fed.
The rotating speed of the lathe is also referred to as the number of times the material rotates in a minute, or RPMs. The rotating speed will determine the fineness of the cuts made in the material–using a slower rotating speed initially may be desirable in order to control the amount of cutting that takes place. The cutting depth determines what amount of material will be removed from the piece of metal or wood being lathed. Deep cutting will remove more material than shallower cutting. The feed speed will also affect the roughness of the cut made on the material. This can be controlled more easily by an operator using a manual setting than by the machine’s automatic setting.
Things Not to Do when Operating a Lathe
Once a desired cutting height and depth has been set with the lathe chuck handles, they should be removed prior to operation of the machine. The handles may become loose and fly around due to the speed of the lathe and present a safety hazard to the operator and anyone else in the vicinity of the machine. Don’t forget to wear safety equipment, and never leave a lathe unsupervised.
When using a lathe it is important to observe all safety handling procedures that are recommended by the manufacturer. These procedures are in place not only to protect the lathe operator and prevent injury, they are also necessary in order to prevent the lathe or its parts from becoming damaged. Because certain types of material may produce shavings that can be sharp, a lathe operator should wear protective eyewear as well as a protective smock or coat.
Desmond Brock writes on hand tools, lathes, complex machinery, storage tanks, woodworking, metalworking and other related areas; he recommends Go-To-Tanks for like minded persons eager to learn more.
Image credit goes to Jennifer Pitre.